Personal Finance Tips – Some Helpful Suggestions

Entrepreneur or not, your lifestyle and your decisions should be as thoroughly backed by as much meticulous planning and care as you would when you are deciding on the annual budget for a company of your own. There is a whole number of reasons why managing your money well will give you a better chance of success, and it is all about how you position yourself. Let these Personal finance tips show you how.

Finances are the name of the game, and if not kept in top shape, your cluttered finances have a way of accumulating, and then catching up. Pay heed to these important Personal Finance Tips that can help you. Whether you are one of the employees of a huge company, or self employed professionals such as commercial mortgage brokers, there is simply no excuse to mismanage your money matters. Your personal finances are every bit as crucial as corporate finances, and vice versa, although the amounts of money may vary a bit.

Make use of the following tools for managing your finances, and make the best use of them for gain, and to avoid loss. Make use of modern technology and the benefits it entail, such as the Charles Schwab Credit card. As commercial mortgage brokers will tell you, “a dollar saved is a dollar earned”.

Some Suggestions of personal finance tips –

Mint dot com

Mint has received raving reviews, and certainly, the site has a simple and easy to use and analyze format, which manages your personal finances in an exemplary manner. Mint aggregates the financial information in a comprehensive format, and you will know how to spend, and how to save. Best of all, its free of cost, and there is no software downloads, no commitments, trials or anything of that sort. All your accounts can be synced with no hassle. There are a good number of excellent

CreditKarma dot com

Another free service, CreditKarma gives you free credit reports, and you can find a lot of advice here that will help you save cash on mortgages, loans, credit cards, and a whole lot more, basically like commercial mortgage brokers. There are a good number of excellent services.

Credit cards

Well, shaky area to offer specific advice, but credit cards such as the Charles Schwab Credit card can do much to save your money, if you are smart enough to never carry a balance. If you can use the great rewards programs with no worry about the APR, you will have to live within your means and not carry balance.

Pay off all the items you want in a month by your card, and clear the balances regularly. This will enable you to reap benefits on the rewards. You can also keep track of the various expenses, as well as keep a reign on your spending habits.

You can enjoy the rewards such as those offered by Charles Schwab Credit card, if you have a brokerage account with them. There are a good range of rewards you can save on.

Top Qualities Of A Business Finance Manager

There is no business that does not want to make a lot of money, in as little time as possible, and still have a little left over after all expenses have been paid. It is the work the finance manager in any company to put in place strategies that will ensure the business does well financially.

The term finance manager is usually a general term for all the other individuals who deal in different financial matters. There are financial controllers, treasure, credit managers and also risk insurance managers. All these deal with matters that are still financial but different in more than one certain ways. However, the qualities to look out for are still the same. To have a good financial manager he/she has to be a people person. Since most of the time these individuals work with a team he/she will have to have good communication skills. This will help them interact well with the other managers. Furthermore, their managerial role means that they are supervisors; therefore, with good interpersonal skills they can be able to lead others.

Financial managers do also require some marketing skills. This will best tell you whether the candidate you have has some inclinations to money earning activities. He/she may not have the required education, but you could have them try to sell you a product so that you can see whether they have a money making sense or not.

With the increase in financial technical computer based instruments a financial manager must have know-how on computers. Moreover, if he/she is adaptable to changes it would be easy for them to change as technology also changes. As the world evolves, new trends come and go and this means that the person you hire to take care of your financial work should also be on the look-out for new trends so that he/she can direct the company to a more profitable position. In addition they should have knowledge of the tax laws that govern your companies industry so that they can incorporated these laws in every aspect that they undertake.

Education and experience are also key factors to look into as you go about hiring a financial manger. Good financial manager are those with enough job experience. As for education, go for those with advanced degrees in finance, economics, business administration and even risk management. Although experience and skills are paramount, it is good to choose a candidate who shows a willingness to learn. This is because such candidates are more likely to be good managers than those showing no willingness at all to learn from others.

Every business owner wants to make money, pay his/her expenses and still have some of it left over. The best way that they can ensure they are making profits is by hiring a finance manager. However, not just any individual can handle company’s financial matters. Even though there is more than one different financial manager titles the qualities to look out for are the same. The individual you choose has to have the right education, experience, and the ability to work as a team.

Corporate Finance Management

Corporate finance management is a branch of finance that refers to the management of financial resources of a company. The main objective of corporate financing is to maximize the company value by making proper allocation of financial resources, along with taking care of the financial risks. Finance management focuses on analyzing the financial problems and devising the universal solutions, which are applicable to all kind of companies.

There are various topics, which are covered under the study of corporate finance such as working capital management, inventory management, debtor’s management, dividend policy, short term and long term financing and financial risk management. Each of the above mentioned subjects make use of different financial tools in deciding the allocation and management of resources among most competing opportunities. It is one of the highly discussed topics due to its own importance in growing economy of any country.

Finance management is an absolute necessity for all types of business organizations. Earlier it used to be the part of overall finance management of a firm. But, over the last one decade, it has emerges as a separate discipline altogether. Today, in both large and medium sizes corporations, there is a dedicated department involved in taking care of the corporate finance management of the company.

Professionals involved in this profession have the responsibility to maximize the company’s profit, shareholder’s wealth, capital budgeting and identifying the areas of financial resource allocation. Since, the areas involved in the discipline are critical and thus require special set of skills in the professionals for efficient handling of the job responsibility. One of the best ways to get into organizational financing is get enrolled into finance management courses, offered by various finance institutes across the country.

Courses in finance help the students to plan and act to resolve the whole conundrum of finance. The course curriculum of the finance courses includes a detailed study of different subjects like micro and macro economics, accountancy, personal and corporate finance, merchant banking, investment banking, financial markets and derivatives, the venture capital, mergers and acquisitions and many others. The detailed study of these subjects gives an overview to the students about the true picture of the industry. Finance courses are a gateway to enter into the world of corporate financing. The future in corporate financing is very bright and is likely to show tremendous growth for next few years to come ahead, which is a positive sign for the aspiring students.

Why Is Public Finance Management So Important To Development?

In response to the Paris Declaration (2005) and the Accra Agenda (2008) leading to commitments for donors to channel more of their aid to developing countries through country systems, there has been a growing shift away from program and project aid – typically managed or overseen directly by the contributing development partner – to budget support where aid is channeled directly through the developing country treasury’s consolidated revenue fund account. As one might expect, as a consequence of this growing shift to budget support there has been a corresponding increase in donor focus on the performance of Public Finance Management in the countries that receive budget support. This is as should be, given the increased real or perceived fiduciary risks associated with the use of country systems to manage the hard earned taxes of the citizens of development partner countries.

But this is only one side of the story. Unfortunately there is not yet that much interest or appreciation in the other side of the story. On the other side of the story are the citizens of the developing countries who may suffer as a consequence of tinkering with Public Finance Management systems in the name of reform, which may only serve to undermine current weak systems and set them back even further. Public Finance Management seems inaccessible to most of us. Even where it is accessible to us we deem it to be boring, inconsequential and something only dreary accountants and auditors need bother about. But think, Public Finance Management is about our money, it is about our children’s future, it is about our development.
The importance of Public Finance Management and its reform derives as a consequence of its direct role in implementing policy – be it about improving education, achieving better health care, promoting tourism, or increasing agricultural yields. With weak Public Finance Management systems, even where policy makers come up with sound policy, it may not be possible to implement such policy effectively. Further, quite uniquely Public Finance Management performance affects the performance of all other sectors – yes the macroeconomic environment and so private sector opportunity and the service delivery in agriculture, health, education, transport, energy, public safety and the list goes on. When it works, all other sectors have a chance of succeeding; but when Public Finance Management fails all other sectors fail.

We as citizens of developing countries ought to be more concerned about who drives the agenda for Public Finance Management reform. Is it the IMF, as it imposes Public Finance Management Reform conditionalities that are not just tied to strengthening or improving budgetary systems, but are tied specifically to the adoption of particular reform approaches – despite such approaches having in some instances failed in more than one country. Is it the World Bank as it makes the adoption of integrated financial management information systems (IFMIS) the basis for support in reforming the Public Finance Management systems? Or is it the result of wide internal debate and consideration by the country citizenry influencing their elected leaders to address the basic things that they know do not work using approaches that are within the reach of our capacity rather than adopt reform methods that may not yet be appropriate to our circumstances?

This donor interest in improving Public Finance Management performance has led to immense pressure on countries to adopt new public management approaches. These have included (1) medium term expenditure frameworks (MTEF) often pushed to be implemented long before a country may have developed the capacity to make credible their annual budgets and even as developing partners themselves continue to struggle with their capability to disburse funds predictably in-year, more so as measured in a medium term perspective; or (2) the use of policy based budgeting such as program and activity based budgeting long before they have the institutional capacity to effectively coordinate programs, develop the fiscal space for meaningful policy consideration, or access the monitoring data to properly evaluate policy outcomes; or (3) the adoption of integrated financial management information systems (IFMIS) to manage expenditure which occurs across as many as thousands of spending units many of which still struggle with issues of staff retention, electricity supply or integration into a national financial administrative network. The challenges of managing at the level of spending units under an IFMIS implementation has led to a roll out strategy limited to treasuries (payment centres). Control over payments is often too late to impact on the accrual of expenditure arrears which can have important detrimental macroeconomic stability impacts; or (4) full accrual accounting even as financial reports based upon a cash accounting standard are not comprehensive, show signs of low data integrity and are issued late. A review of country experience across many developing countries who have adopted the new program management approaches in their Public Finance management reforms shows that these efforts have often not been successful by any reasonable measure.

The primary reason for this widespread Public Finance Management reform failure is often attributed to political economy considerations by developing partners – poor governance, high levels of corruption and the like. Of course that is part of the equation, but in contrast it is striking that there are cases of dramatic success of particular elements of Public Finance Management reform in such areas as debt management, certain aspects of revenue administration and public procurement in even what are considered the most corrupt developing countries. Is the political economy focus just another way of suggesting that the poor success record of many of these new public management approaches is solely the responsibility of the developing countries and has little to do with the immense influence that the donor community has had over in setting the Public Finance Management reform agenda?

Clearly, it is time to recognise that considerations of the different sides of the question as to what reform methods to adopt or whether Public Finance Management is, or should be, driven principally by the disbursement conditionalities set by donors; or arrived at through much wider debate and careful consideration by the citizenry and leadership of developing countries might lead to quite different conclusions. The consequence of wider discussion between developing country actors could lead to a more balanced, realistic, relevant and ultimately effective approach to Public Finance Management reform in developing countries.

5 Ways Auto Insurance Leads and Special Finance Auto Leads Can Be Quickly Generated

The market of auto insurance is limited in the sense people will buy an insurance policy only after owning a new car from a dealer. The competition in this segment is pretty high and hence the auto dealers look for ways to increase their insurance sale. Many car insurance companies spend millions of dollars on advertisements and promotional campaigns throughout the year. However, they often fail to generate the number of auto insurance leads they were expecting to produce within a certain period of time.

There are many professional auto leads generating companies offering specialized services to people trying hard to meet their weekly or monthly sales target. These companies are also experts in producing a large number of special finance auto leads within the deadline as set by the clients.

Deliver Quality Leads on Time

A majority of auto dealerships produces leads that have very little chances of turning into sales. Spending a lump sum amount of money and resources on the marketing programs might go to wastage failing to sell a specific number of car insurance. Thus, many dealers take the help of professional lead generators who are solely dedicated to producing high-quality leads only. They guarantee supplying a large number of effective auto insurance leads who will convert successfully into customers.

Operating Multiple Websites

All the professional lead generation firms run more than one auto insurance websites that attract customers actively searching for various insurance quotes. The websites are all highly ranked on the popular search engines – Google, Yahoo, and Bing. These sites are optimized by the respective firms to attract the eyeballs of a maximum number of online searchers ready to buy an insurance for their brand-new car. Once visitors get into a site, they fill up an online quote request form to learn more about the different quotes on offer. In this way, the submitters of such forms qualify as leads!

Quick Follow-Up with the Leads

It is very important to instantly follow-up with the leads by responding to their queries and clearing their doubts. Once the visitor submits the online form, the data in it gets stored in the company’s database. The data is accessed by the company officials for a real-time follow-up purpose. Either the professional calls up the customer or sends him an email for a clear communication reason.

Lead Management System

Every single lead that is produced via submission of an online quote request form is properly stored and managed in order to avoid missing the opportunity of losing out a valuable prospect. An online lead management system is used by many professional lead generating firms for accurately managing the mobile numbers, email address, etc. of the new sale opportunities.

Account Management System

Many lead generators also utilize an account management system to make it easier for the clients to target leads based on specific geographical location, demographics, policy type, etc.

These professional companies know how to best utilize the online marketing strategies to produce quality auto insurance leads. Apart from operating sites, they run blogs, landing pages to grab the attention of as many people as possible.

Matthew S Barredo is a market research analyst in the automobile industry, who insists that it is not tough to get auto insurance leads if you choose the right service provider who guarantees to get your loan approved. In this article, he educates readers about choosing special finance auto leads.

How to Sell Cars: The Advantages of Auto Sales Training

By learning how to sell cars profitably, you will become a prized asset of any car sales company. The advantages of auto sales training are many, not the least of which are your improved reputation, increased sales for your firm and more money for you. What more could you wish for, particularly in the early stages of your career!

Far too many car salesmen and women these days are ignorant of how to speak to people wandering onto the car lot or into the dealer showroom. They don’t know how to persuade them to buy, and are ignorant of many of the features of the cars on the lot. That’s before we even think about finance options, service agreements and warranties!

What Auto Sales Training Teaches

This is where auto sales training that will teach you or your staff how to sell cars effectively and profitably will improve your knowledge and assist you in being more professional in your work. The first approach to a prospective buyer is very important, get that wrong and you have lost a sale. So too is being able to answer any questions asked about the vehicles you are selling. Show ignorance of your range, and you may as well wave bye-bye to a customer.

Auto sales training not only teaches you or your staff how to sell cars, but also how to keep prospects interested. Communication skills are critical in any form of sales, particularly where direct face-to-face contact with the customer is common. Such skills can be taught and learned, and by attending a car sales course you will leave the much wiser, better prepared and more capable of converting a prospect into a customer that before.

How to Sell Cars: Know Your Vehicles

Another major aspect of effective car salesmanship is knowledge of your vehicles. We are not only talking about the differences between brands and models, but also fuel types. “Would I be better with a diesel car or a hybrid?” Could you honestly answer that question accurately without blustering your way through it? Probably not, and then when the prospective customer adds electric cars, ethanol and hydrogen cells into the mix would you be lost or could you handle such technical questions?

“What types of finance are available, and which do you recommend?” Well – do you know what is best for this particular guy, or that young woman just starting her first job? How about commercial hire purchase, a novated lease or chattel mortgages? Are you aware of what these are – or even a finance lease? Were you asked about these would you even know what they were, let alone who would most benefit from them? Which of these options does your company offer?

What warranties are available on each car on your lot, and how many owners have each had? Even if you don’t know the answers to these questions there are ways of handling visitors who ask them. Don’t just shrug your shoulders and say “Your guess is as good as mine” – that will not win you many customers!

Learn How to Sell Cars Professionally

There are many advantages of auto sales training, not the least of which would be learning how to handle questions such as these. By learning how to sell cars professionally, you will build up a level of confidence that becomes very obvious to the potential customer. Not only will they listen to you, but they will be more likely to buy a car from you because you project an aura of trust.

Teach your staff how to sell cars properly. Send them on a course or run a course on your premises. Auto sales training will not only help you build up a staff that is confident and knowledgeable, but will also help improve your company’s performance. The better trained and more confident you and your staff, the more vehicles you will sell and the more money you will make.

Reach Out to People on Social Media Sites to Generate Finance Auto Leads

The traditional ways of marketing via telephone calls and advertisements in newspapers and business magazines still exists; however more and more car sellers these days are turning to the Internet in search for finance auto lead. It is because today, a rising number of people prefer to shop for cars and such other necessary items over the Internet. Thus, the easiest way to get noticed is by maintaining an online presence on the different social networking sites, websites, and blogs.

Who are finance auto leads?

Finance auto leads are customers who are eager to buy a car but don’t have the money in hand for investing purpose. They look for suitable finance options to urgently purchase a car of their favorite make. All auto lending institutions looking for special finance leads must run one or multiple car leads sites containing fresh, updated content. The car shoppers looking to gather updated information about auto loans must get all kinds of car related information from your site. If you somehow manage to impress the potential customers chances are you will start getting lots of new customers thereby skyrocketing your sales and profit margin.

How to convert potential auto buyers into customers?

As an auto dealer, you must open a page on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google+ to reach out to maximum people within a short span of time. The social media profile pages can be template-based, and must contain interesting content along with photos and videos to attract and retain the visitors. The whole purpose behind maintaining a social media profile page is to provide useful information that the potential auto buyers are looking for. The auto buyers can inquire about the newly launched cars, their prices and features, about auto insurance, auto loans, and more. As a dealer, you must provide comprehensive information about the various aspects of the automotive industry.

Why social networking?

Social media sites are also known as social networking sites. Let me explain the logic behind the term “networking site”. A user visits your Facebook page, likes your post or multiple posts, and shares the posts on his page so that all his friends and followers can see the same. In this way, a good post gets noticed and shared by a lot of people. This is the viral effect of the social media websites. Within a moment, you will see an increasing number of fans and followers liking, commenting, and sharing your social media content with their extended network of friends and associates.

To get a good number of finance auto lead, auto dealerships must explore every popular social media web platform that has a growing number of active users. Till date, Facebook happens to top the list of most popular social media website.

Social media is all about getting referrals

The main business goal behind opening pages on social media sites is to get maximum referrals. The topmost benefit of social media sites is that they help in getting lots of potential customers by making a post instantly popular.

Business Finance Brokers: Knowing How They Can Help You

Planning to purchase a business unfortunately do not know where to start looking for finance? Are you currently a bit too busy to be undertaking some researching plus negotiating with business finance brokers? Have you been beginning to lose hope because you are always rejected by lending companies or banking institutions?

When your reply is a definite ‘yes’ to these questions then it could be the very best time and also a smart idea to obtain the aid of a business finance broker who is able to accomplish all the finance arrangements in your part.

It truly is significant that you get a very good business finance broker as a good broker provides a dedicated one-to-one service and keeps you fully up to date of the available alternatives, what every single option entails along with its benefits and downside. A good broker is knowledgeable in finding a wide range of suitable finance options without delay. In addition, he offers the expertise to negotiate a better deal than you can do by yourself.

A business finance broker is aware of which type of financing you need. The kind of financing that you will need will depend on your financial means, your expected profit margin, the sector you want to enter plus some other factors. A broker makes the whole process simple and easy; in most cases he gathers some basic information from you via phone and provides a decision in principle within 24 or 48 hours.

When you have determined which financial providers to approach, the brokers can help you tailor and present your proposals in the right way. In order to help tailor your proposals and also to avoid rejections they keep up to date with any policy changes at banks.

The method that you present your proposal can often be the cause of being rejected for finance.

The moment you ponder on raising funds to obtain a business, what comes first to your mind is to get finance from banks. Yet you ought to be knowledgeable that there are a myriad of lenders these days and some of which specialize in particular products or industries. For instance if perhaps you wish to purchase a garage business, it would make sense to request finance from a lender which specializes in funding garages.

A finance broker is knowledgeable with the diverse market for finance provision. Odds are that you’ll find the process complicated and time intensive and find yourself land up picking the wrong business finance provider. You need the aid of a broker to get the best deal.

In regards to raising finance, a one-dimensional approach can be a bad idea. Quite often, banks lend on inflexible terms and more frequently they turn down individuals who are with greatest need.

Business finance brokers aid you have a whole lot more options besides banks. He will likewise tailor a financial package that suits your needs as well as resources from a wide selection of finance companies and kinds of finance.

Because brokers are up to par and extensively knowledgeable of the financial provision market they are fully aware precisely how much leverage they have in negotiations. Thus the moment you have selected a number of providers, the broker can use his expertise in negotiating to obtain a deal with the terms and rates that best accommodates your needs.

Bear in mind that the choice is always yours. A broker is there to offer you options and also assist you have an understanding of them to produce a well-informed choice.

A business finance broker can help beyond purchasing a business – he can assist you obtain working capital as your business grows and expands. Brokers also offer assistance on business planning, consulting, management buyouts, business restructuring, and also buy-ins and turnaround finance.

By simply using the services of a reliable finance broker like Enable Finance you’ll save yourself money and time plus obtain a financial deal that accommodates you best.

Your Bank and Business Financing – Reality Check

Business owners and managers want to compare equipment finance companies to their bank and for a good reason; a bank is a company’s first point of reference when borrowing money or financing equipment or an expansion project. A bank is the most obvious place to start and a secure place to store your money and use their multiple services. But what a bank does not do well, both historically because of their structure and the recent tightening of the credit market, is offer business financing for capital assets (equipment). Yet many people get confused when looking for an equipment loan because they are not seeing the whole picture; this is a case where you definitely want to compare apples to apples to get the best results.

Here are a few points to compare; these are not set in stone but based on years of experience, these trends apply a majority of the time.

1) Total Dollars Financed – banks normally require that you keep a balance of 20% or 30% of the equipment loan amount on deposit. This means they are only financing 70% or 80% of your equipment costs because you have to keep a certain amount of YOUR money in a fixed account for the duration of the loan. In contrast, an equipment finance company will cover 100% of the equipment including all “soft” costs and will only request a one or two month prepayment. No fixed deposits required.

2) Soft Costs – banks also will normally not cover “soft” costs like labor, warrantees, consulting and installation which means these costs come out of your pocket. An equipment finance company will cover 100% of the equipment price including “soft” costs and some projects can be financed with 100% “soft” costs which no bank would ever consider.

3) Interest Rates – this is the most popular question in the finance world; what’s my rate? If the bank requires 30% deposit in a fixed account then that automatically raises a 5% interest rate to a 20% rate. Now people will argue that you get that deposited money back at the end of the term but that is money which you do not have access to and has an opportunity cost associated with it. Equipment finance companies target their financing rates between 3-5% for cities and 7-9% for commercial financing which is a real fixed rate and not under-stated as the bank rates can be thus independent finance company rates are very competitive with “true” bank rates.

4) Process Speed – banks often take weeks to review and approve a finance request while independent finance companies normally only take a few days and can work much more quickly. Finance underwriters only review business financing while a bank has other types of requests clogging their channel.

Banks also have many more levels of approval and review to pass while independent finance companies normally only have two, underwriting and credit committee. Even with complicated deals, the finance company’s process is always faster.

5) Guarantee – banks require, as a standard part of their documentation, a blanket lien on all assets, both personal and business assets are used as guarantee against default on the loan. Your business assets, your home, your car, and your boat can all be on the line when entering into a bank transaction. This may also be the case with an equipment financing company but if your business operation is solvent then only your business will be listed as collateral and not your personal assets; this is known as a “corp only” approval.

6) Monitoring – banks require yearly “re-qualifying” of all their business accounts which means on the anniversary date of your loan each year, you must submit requested financial documents to assure the bank that everything is going well and nothing has affected your business in a negative way. Finance companies do not require anything during the term of the loan or finance as long as the monthly payments are made on time. Nobody will be checking into your business or policing what you do.

When comparing your bank financing to an independent equipment finance company, you have to make sure you are evaluating all the key parameters, not just one. Clearly, the fine print and terms of the transaction are more important than the big numbers. Banks work well within their space but have proven time and again not to be as flexible or solution-oriented as an independent finance company which solely focuses on business lending can be.

Sources of Business Finance

 

Sources of business finance can be studied under the following heads:

(1) Short Term Finance:

Short-term finance is needed to fulfill the current needs of business. The current needs may include payment of taxes, salaries or wages, repair expenses, payment to creditor etc. The need for short term finance arises because sales revenues and purchase payments are not perfectly same at all the time. Sometimes sales can be low as compared to purchases. Further sales may be on credit while purchases are on cash. So short term finance is needed to match these disequilibrium.

Sources of short term finance are as follows:

(i) Bank Overdraft: Bank overdraft is very widely used source of business finance. Under this client can draw certain sum of money over and above his original account balance. Thus it is easier for the businessman to meet short term unexpected expenses.

(ii) Bill Discounting: Bills of exchange can be discounted at the banks. This provides cash to the holder of the bill which can be used to finance immediate needs.

(iii) Advances from Customers: Advances are primarily demanded and received for the confirmation of orders However, these are also used as source of financing the operations necessary to execute the job order.

(iv) Installment Purchases: Purchasing on installment gives more time to make payments. The deferred payments are used as a source of financing small expenses which are to be paid immediately.

(v) Bill of Lading: Bill of lading and other export and import documents are used as a guarantee to take loan from banks and that loan amount can be used as finance for a short time period.

(vi) Financial Institutions: Different financial institutions also help businessmen to get out of financial difficulties by providing short-term loans. Certain co-operative societies can arrange short term financial assistance for businessmen.

(vii) Trade Credit: It is the usual practice of the businessmen to buy raw material, store and spares on credit. Such transactions result in increasing accounts payable of the business which are to be paid after a certain time period. Goods are sold on cash and payment is made after 30, 60, or 90 days. This allows some freedom to businessmen in meeting financial difficulties.

(2) Medium Term Finance:

This finance is required to meet the medium term (1-5 years) requirements of the business. Such finances are basically required for the balancing, modernization and replacement of machinery and plant. These are also needed for re-engineering of the organization. They aid the management in completing medium term capital projects within planned time. Following are the sources of medium term finance:

(i) Commercial Banks: Commercial banks are the major source of medium term finance. They provide loans for different time-period against appropriate securities. At the termination of terms the loan can be re-negotiated, if required.

(ii) Hire Purchase: Hire purchase means buying on installments. It allows the business house to have the required goods with payments to be made in future in agreed installment. Needless to say that some interest is always charged on outstanding amount.

(iii) Financial Institutions: Several financial institutions such as SME Bank, Industrial Development Bank, etc., also provide medium and long-term finances. Besides providing finance they also provide technical and managerial assistance on different matters.

(iv) Debentures and TFCs: Debentures and TFCs (Terms Finance Certificates) are also used as a source of medium term finances. Debentures is an acknowledgement of loan from the company. It can be of any duration as agreed among the parties. The debenture holder enjoys return at a fixed rate of interest. Under Islamic mode of financing debentures has been replaced by TFCs.

(v) Insurance Companies: Insurance companies have a large pool of funds contributed by their policy holders. Insurance companies grant loans and make investments out of this pool. Such loans are the source of medium term financing for various businesses.

(3) Long Term Finance:

Long term finances are those that are required on permanent basis or for more than five years tenure. They are basically desired to meet structural changes in business or for heavy modernization expenses. These are also needed to initiate a new business plan or for a long term developmental projects. Following are its sources:

(i) Equity Shares: This method is most widely used all over the world to raise long term finance. Equity shares are subscribed by public to generate the capital base of a large scale business. The equity share holders shares the profit and loss of the business. This method is safe and secured, in a sense that amount once received is only paid back at the time of wounding up of the company.

(ii) Retained Earnings: Retained earnings are the reserves which are generated from the excess profits. In times of need they can be used to finance the business project. This is also called ploughing back of profits.

(iii) Leasing: Leasing is also a source of long term finance. With the help of leasing, new equipment can be acquired without any heavy outflow of cash.

(iv) Financial Institutions: Different financial institutions such as former PICIC also provide long term loans to business houses.

(v) Debentures: Debentures and Participation Term Certificates are also used as a source of long term financing.

Conclusion:

These are various sources of finance. In fact there is no hard and fast rule to differentiate among short and medium term sources or medium and long term sources. A source for example commercial bank can provide both a short term or a long term loan according to the needs of client. However, all these sources are frequently used in the modern business world for raising finances.